I've been doing a lot with using rtl_433 and an rtl-sdr to receive temperature and humidity sensors, outdoor weather stations, and security system sensors (aka contacts).
So, I've been wondering about receiving and decoding home automation RF protocols like Z-Wave, Insteon, Zigbee which aren't terribly open. The other day I saw this article on the RTL-SDR.com blog, "Hacking the Z-Wave Protocol with a Hack-RF", about a Shmoocon talk. Exactly what I've been waiting for. I have a HackRF in that I haven't been doing much with ... yet.
I assumed it would be possible to receive Z-Wave with an RTL-SDR. There are a number of USB Z-Wave sticks that are starting to get popular. Many home automation controllers that have one of the protocols implemented are fairly expensive and somewhat closed.
So I'm excited to see this, quoting the RTL-SDR.com post
Z-wave is a wireless protocol that is used often in applications like smart home and industrial automation. It essentially allows various wireless nodes to connect and talk to one another within your house, using 900 MHz wireless technology. Some common examples of Z-wave node products might be wireless controlled lights, door locks, thermostats and other security devices like motion detectors.Unfortunately it looks like their stuff requires two HackRFs, one for transmitting and one for receiving. I unfortunately, only have one HackRF. There has been some work to enable better T/R (Transmit/Receive) switching into the HackRF libraries. I've seen the commits go by but haven't looked into them much yet.
Recently at Shmoocon 2016 (a yearly hacking and security themed conference), presenters Joseph Hall and Ben Ramsey showed how they were able to use a HackRF software defined radio and some GNU Radio based software to not only sniff Z-wave packets, but to also control Z-wave devices. What’s also interesting is that they found that encryption on z-wave devices was rarely enabled, except for five out of nine door locks that they tested where it was enabled by default.
See the full story at Hackaday and have a look at their code on GitHub.
Things are getting interesting, stay tuned for more...